Wireframes vs. Mockups vs. Prototypes: 3 Tools for Success

Last Modified: May 23rd, 2024 - Category: Freebies, Theory, Tutorials, UI Design, UX Theory
Cover image for wireframes vs mockups vs prototypes article

Wireframe vs Mockup vs Prototype: Understanding the Differences

In the world of UX and UI design, creating a successful product involves multiple stages of visualization and user testing. Three important steps in this process are wireframing, creating mockups, and prototyping. Each step serves a distinct purpose and provides unique insights into the design and functionality of the final product. Understanding the differences between wireframes, mockups, and prototypes is essential for designers, developers, and stakeholders to collaborate effectively and deliver a user-friendly product. In this article, we’ll explain each step with examples, tools to build them, and considerations on what, when, and why to use these design tools.

The Foundation: Research and Preparation

Before diving into wireframing, mockups, and prototyping, it’s essential to conduct thorough UX research. This includes creating personas, mapping user journeys, defining user flows, and establishing information architecture (IA). These elements provide the foundation for the design process, ensuring that wireframes are not created in a vacuum but are based on a deep understanding of the user’s needs and behaviors.

This is the first step and can’t be avoided. I’ve reduced it to the basics, but there are many more research methods and methodologies to use before diving into wireframes. The more information you have from users, the better. Do NOT try to skip steps, as you’ll likely face many problems down the road. It’s like a snowball—problems start to pile up and create a bigger issue simply because there’s missing information.


Personas are fictional characters that represent the target users. They are based on user research and help designers understand the needs, goals, and behaviors of different user segments. You can read more about Personas in our article about user personas.

User Journeys

User journeys map out the steps a user takes to achieve a specific goal. They highlight the user’s interactions with the product and identify potential pain points and opportunities for improvement.

Remember that a a user journey is not only about the direct interaction with the product, but also HOW the user gets to interact with it. A good example of this broader perspective is considering how a user acquires the product. This is often the first step in a user journey, and understanding the acquisition process can reveal valuable insights.

User Flows

User flows detail the path a user takes through an application or website to complete a task. They help designers visualize the sequence of interactions and ensure that the user experience is smooth and intuitive.

Example: how a user arrives at an e-commerce website to purchase a product, including all the steps needed from arrival to task completion (or abandonment).

Information Architecture (IA)

I apologize for the misunderstanding. Here is the revised paragraph with first-person language:

Information architecture (IA) involves organizing and structuring content to make it easy for users to find and understand. IA ensures that the product’s navigation and layout are logical and user-friendly. Before starting the wireframe process, we must establish A solid IA. This IA will provide us with a clear blueprint of how information is grouped and accessed, and will help us create wireframes that accurately reflect the user’s needs.

Without a proper Information Architecture, our wireframes can become disorganized and confusing, leading to a poor user experience. That’s why we should establish solid IA as a critical step to make sure our wireframes are effective and efficient and not to forget anything.

Wireframes: The Blueprint of Design

So we’re ready to start! The first thing any UI designer must work on is wireframes. These wireframes can be built by a UX designer or even a Product Manager or Product Owner, but the best way (whenever possible) is to create them as a team.

Wireframes are the skeletal framework of a digital product. They are low-fidelity representations that outline the basic structure and layout of a webpage or application. Think of wireframes as the architectural blueprints of a building. They provide a clear, simplified view of the design’s layout without any stylistic elements, colors, or detailed graphics.

One small note on the above paragraph: if you’re a purist, you won’t use any colors, and for some reason (well, because they remind you of blueprints) they must be made in blue. You shouldn’t care about things like that, only the results. If you want to do it in black, that’s fine. And if adding one color to clearly identify an element such as a CTA, then go for it. As long as you transmit the needed information and you’re aware that the colors you use will probably not be used in the final prototype, it’s OK.

Personally, I tend to use grey for everything and sometimes highlight specific elements in a color like blue or fuchsia. However, this is just a personal preference, you can do it any way you want, but remember to keep it simple and focus on information.

Finally, while speaking about information, wireframes don’t convey information on colors, typography, branding, or even position, only the elements that should be on the screen. It’s the task of a UI designer to study the best way to position elements, choose colors, typography, and imagery, and follow the brand guidelines. For example, you can create a horizontal menu in a wireframe, but the UI designer may later decide to create a vertical menu.

Low-Fidelity Wireframes

Low-fidelity wireframes are simple, often created using basic tools like pencil and paper. They focus on the basic structure and layout, providing a quick and cost-effective way to visualize design concepts.

Purpose of Low-Fidelity Wireframes

  1. Clarify Structure and Layout: Low-fidelity wireframes help establish the hierarchy and placement of elements on the page.
  2. Facilitate Communication: They serve as a visual tool to communicate design ideas to team members and stakeholders.
  3. Identify Usability Issues: By stripping away design details, low-fidelity wireframes highlight potential usability issues early in the process.
  4. Save Time and Resources: Creating low-fidelity wireframes is quick and inexpensive, allowing for rapid iteration and feedback.

Characteristics of Low-Fidelity Wireframes

  • Simple Sketches: Often created with pencil and paper or basic digital tools.
  • Focus on Functionality: Emphasis on layout and structure rather than visual design.
  • Annotated: Include notes to explain the functionality of different elements.

High-Fidelity Wireframes

Cyber Centaurus High fidelity Wireframe
Example of high fidelity wireframe done by us. Click for full scale.

High-fidelity wireframes are more detailed and often created using digital tools. They provide a clearer view of the design, including more precise placement of elements and sometimes basic interactions.

Purpose of High-Fidelity Wireframes

  1. Refine Structure and Layout: High-fidelity wireframes provide a more detailed view of the design.
  2. Detailed Communication: They offer a more accurate representation of the final product’s layout for discussions with stakeholders.
  3. Preliminary Interaction: High-fidelity wireframes can include basic interactions to demonstrate functionality.

Characteristics of High-Fidelity Wireframes

  • Detailed Layouts: Created with digital tools, showing precise placement of elements.
  • Interactive Elements: May include basic interactions like links or simple animations.
  • More Visual Detail: Includes placeholder text and images to provide context.

Tools for Creating Wireframes

There are various tools available for creating wireframes, ranging from simple sketching tools to dedicated wireframing software. Some popular tools include:

  • Pencil and Paper: The most basic and accessible tool for creating low-fidelity wireframes. This traditional method allows for quick sketches and easy iteration, making it ideal for brainstorming and initial concept development. It requires no special software or equipment, providing maximum flexibility and creativity.
  • Diagrams.net: A powerful design tool that allows for both basic wireframing as well as creating diagrams and user flows (formerly known as Draw.io). Diagrams.net is 100% free and packed with features, making it a versatile choice for designers. Its intuitive interface and extensive library of shapes and connectors make it easy to create detailed and complex designs. Additionally, it supports collaboration and integration with popular cloud storage services, enhancing its usability for team projects.
  • Balsamiq Wireframes: A popular tool specifically designed for creating low-fidelity wireframes. Balsamiq Wireframes provides a simple, drag-and-drop interface that mimics the look of hand-drawn sketches, helping designers focus on structure and layout without getting bogged down by details. It is user-friendly and allows for rapid creation and iteration of wireframes, making it a favorite among designers for early-stage design work.

    Mockups: Bringing Design to Life

    Mockups are high-fidelity, static representations of the final product. They add visual elements such as colors, typography, images, and some branding elements to the basic structure outlined in the wireframe. Mockups provide a realistic view of how the final product will look, allowing designers and stakeholders to visualize the design in greater detail.

    Mockups are a primary technique used by professional UI designers. When we’re designing a mockup, it’s very important to avoid using real content unless the content is already available and 100% static (e.g., we won’t use a CMS and content won’t change, at least for some time). Otherwise, if content is expected to be dynamic and/or controlled by a CMS, placeholder content should be used to “stress” the process.

    To better explain: We know that headers will be variable, so we need to act accordingly. For example, what happens if the header takes 1 line? And what will happen if the header takes 3 lines? What happens if a background image is clear and you have dark text? And what happens if the image is dark? What if you have 4 posts? What if you have 400? What if you have an ads section? And what if the ads section is empty?

    In short, mockups are used to pre-test different scenarios without the need for real content that could provide false insights. Therefore, we shouldn’t worry about fine details in the content; we need to focus on fine details in the structure.

    Purpose of Mockups

    1. Visualize the Final Design: Mockups bridge the gap between wireframes and prototypes by adding visual elements to the design. They provide a quasi-realistic representation of the final product’s appearance.
    2. Refine Aesthetics: Mockups allow designers to experiment with colors, typography, and other visual elements. This helps in refining the aesthetics and ensuring the design aligns with the brand’s identity.
    3. Gather Feedback: High-fidelity mockups provide a tangible representation of the design, making it easier for stakeholders to provide feedback on visual aspects such as color schemes, fonts, and overall look and feel.
    Example of a mockup design
    An example of a mockup. Note how content is fake and it features orphan lines. Click for detail

    Characteristics of Mockups

    • High Fidelity: Mockups include detailed design elements such as colors, fonts, images, and branding, providing a realistic view of the final product without using real content.
    • Static: Like wireframes, mockups are static representations and usually do not include interactive elements. I say “usually” because I prefer to use some basic interactivity in both wireframes and mockups to test IA before prototyping.
    • Structure-oriented: Mockups provide a comprehensive view of the design structure, focusing on visual elements while remaining content-agnostic.

    Tools for Creating Mockups

    Designers can use a variety of tools to create high-fidelity mockups. Some popular tools include:

    Great, thank you for the details. Here’s the updated list with those specific notes included:

    • Sketch: In addition to wireframing, Sketch is widely used for creating high-fidelity mockups. It offers a robust set of design tools and plugins that enhance productivity and streamline the design process. Sketch’s vector-based workflow ensures that designs are scalable and precise. It also supports symbols and reusable elements, making it easy to maintain consistency across different projects. The tool’s integration with various prototyping and collaboration platforms further extends its capabilities. Note that Sketch is available only for Mac.
    • Figma: A collaborative design tool that supports the creation of detailed mockups and allows for real-time collaboration. Figma’s cloud-based platform enables multiple designers to work on the same project simultaneously, promoting teamwork and reducing the need for file transfers. It features powerful design systems, prototyping capabilities, and seamless handoffs to developers. Figma’s version history and comment functionalities make it an excellent choice for both design and feedback processes.
    • Protopie: A powerful tool for creating interactive prototypes and detailed mockups. Protopie allows designers to create complex interactions and animations without any coding. It supports a wide range of gestures and sensors, making it ideal for testing realistic user experiences on various devices. Additionally, Protopie facilitates collaboration by allowing designers to share and collaborate on prototypes in real-time, providing a seamless workflow from design to testing. Its intuitive interface and extensive integration options make it a versatile tool for designers aiming to create highly interactive prototypes. Protopie is currently free and aims to become the new Figma.

      Prototypes: Simulating the User Experience

      Image of interactive prototype and all its connectors
      An interactive prototype we did. The thin lines are connectors.

      Yaaay, time to prototype!

      This is the part we all love (or hate!): building a design version that simulates the final product. While prototypes are limited compared to coded versions, most modern tools allow for very complex prototyping, almost similar to coding. Needless to say, prototypes are not only what we’ll use for user testing before product launch but also what we’ll hand over to developers, as they include the entire information architecture, interactions, elements, layout, etc. Furthermore, prototypes are the main source of documentation for all stakeholders, so we need to be careful, precise, and accurate.

      Besides, we should be thankful we no longer design in Photoshop or Illustrator and then code the prototype to test it. Not so long ago, prototypes were actually coded in HTML+CSS and sometimes JavaScript!

      Spoiler alert: If we cut corners and skipped any step in the process, chances are we’ll find out once we finish the prototype. Oh, the fun of doing it all again from scratch!

      Purpose of Prototypes

      1. Test Interactivity: Prototypes enable designers to test interactive elements, such as buttons, menus, and forms. This helps in identifying usability issues and refining the user experience.
      2. Validate User Flows: Prototypes allow for testing user flows and ensuring that users can navigate through the product as intended. This helps in identifying and addressing any navigation issues.
      3. Gather User Feedback: Interactive prototypes provide a realistic experience for users, making it easier to gather feedback on the overall user experience. The feedback obtained through user testing can be used to make informed design decisions.
      4. Demonstrate Functionality: Prototypes serve as a valuable tool for demonstrating the product’s functionality to stakeholders and clients. They provide a clear representation of how the final product will work.

      Characteristics of Prototypes

      • High Fidelity: Prototypes are often high-fidelity representations, incorporating detailed design elements along with interactivity.
      • Interactive: Unlike wireframes and mockups, prototypes include interactive elements, such as clickable buttons, animations, and transitions.
      • Functional: Prototypes simulate the functionality of the final product, allowing for realistic testing of user interactions.

      Tools for Creating Prototypes

      There are various tools available for creating interactive prototypes. Some popular tools include:

      Proto.io: A popular prototyping tool that allows for creating interactive prototypes and gathering user feedback. Proto.io enables designers to create highly interactive and animated prototypes without any coding. It supports a wide range of integrations and provides a user-friendly interface, making it easy to test and refine designs.

      Figma: In addition to wireframing and mockups, Figma supports interactive prototyping and real-time collaboration. Its cloud-based platform allows multiple designers to work on the same project simultaneously, promoting teamwork and reducing the need for file transfers. Figma also features powerful design systems and seamless handoffs to developers.

      Marvel: A versatile tool for creating wireframes, mockups, and interactive prototypes, with features for testing and sharing designs. Marvel is known for its simplicity and ease of use, making it accessible for designers at all levels. It also offers user testing and design feedback capabilities, streamlining the design process from ideation to implementation.

      Sketch: In addition to wireframing, Sketch is widely used for creating high-fidelity mockups. It offers a robust set of design tools and plugins that enhance productivity and streamline the design process. Sketch’s vector-based workflow ensures that designs are scalable and precise. It also supports symbols and reusable elements, making it easy to maintain consistency across different projects. Note that Sketch is available only for Mac.

      Axure RP: A powerful prototyping tool that supports advanced interactions and dynamic content. Axure RP is ideal for creating detailed wireframes and prototypes that require complex functionality and conditional logic. It also allows for the creation of comprehensive documentation, making it a valuable tool for designers working on large-scale projects.

        Comparing Wireframes, Mockups, and Prototypes

        Detail of a finished interactive prototype before implementation
        Detail of a final prototype just before implementation

        While wireframes, mockups, and prototypes each serve distinct purposes, they are interconnected and often used together in the design process. Understanding the key differences between them helps in choosing the right tool for each stage of the design process.


        • Wireframes: Low fidelity, focusing on structure and layout.
        • Mockups: High fidelity, focusing on visual design and aesthetics.
        • Prototypes: High fidelity, focusing on interactivity and functionality.


        • Wireframes: Clarify structure, facilitate communication, identify usability issues, and save time and resources.
        • Mockups: Visualize the final design, refine aesthetics, gather feedback, and prepare for development.
        • Prototypes: Test interactivity, validate user flows, gather user feedback, and demonstrate functionality.


        • Wireframes: Static representations with no interactivity.
        • Mockups: Static representations with detailed visual elements but no interactivity.
        • Prototypes: Interactive representations that simulate the user experience.

        When to Use Wireframes, Mockups, and Prototypes

        Understanding when to use wireframes, mockups, and prototypes is crucial for an efficient design process. Each step serves a specific purpose and contributes to the overall success of the product.


        • Early Stages of Design: Use wireframes in the early stages of the design process to establish the basic structure and layout.
        • Brainstorming and Ideation: Wireframes are useful during brainstorming sessions to quickly visualize different ideas and layouts.
        • Communicating with Stakeholders: Use wireframes to communicate initial design concepts and gather feedback from stakeholders.


        • Mid Stages of Design: Use mockups after finalizing the basic structure to add visual elements and refine the aesthetics.
        • Design Reviews: Mockups are valuable for design reviews, as they provide a realistic view of the final product’s appearance.
        • Client Presentations: Use mockups to present the visual design to clients and gather feedback on the overall look and feel.


        • Late Stages of Design: Use prototypes in the later stages of the design process to test interactivity and functionality.
        • Usability Testing: Prototypes are essential for usability testing, allowing designers to gather feedback on the user experience.
        • Stakeholder Demonstrations: Use prototypes to demonstrate the product’s functionality to stakeholders and clients, providing a realistic view of the final product.


        So, this is it. As we saw, wireframes, mockups, and prototypes are integral components of the UX design process. Each one serves a distinct purpose and provides unique insights into the design and functionality of the final product. Simply put, wireframes focus on the basic structure and layout, mockups add visual elements and refine the aesthetics, and prototypes simulate the user experience with interactivity and functionality.

        It’s very important to understand the differences between wireframes, mockups, and prototypes since these tools are vital for an effective and efficient UX design process (together with UX research). Knowing which tool to use at every stage of the design process improves our workflow and helps us achieve better products.

        We also explored the tools. As the design process evolves, so do the tools and techniques we use. If you paid attention, you probably noticed we didn’t mention Adobe XD and InVision since they were discontinued and are in sunset status. Therefore, we need to stay updated with the latest tools and best practices to continue creating innovative and user-centered designs.

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